1. Application to destination
Application to destination of BELARUS tractors is the operation, namely the building-block design of machines, equipment and implements (further, machines and engineering tools) consisting of machine-tractor units (MTU). Correct and exact performance of all recommendations and instructions for servicing and operation, specified in tractor operation manual also concerns to elements of application to destination.
2. Method of application
BELARUS tractors are intended for implement mounting by means of factory-made working facilities by any standard method: mounted, trailing, semi-mounted and semi-trailing. Mounting by any other method is the use not to destination.
Building-block approach is the process of tractor coupling with machine for creation of machine-tractor unit.
Building-block approach of BELARUS tractors includes range of works concerned with studying of maintenance documentation for tractors and machines, selection of machines, implements and equipment for their combined operation with tractor, furthermore the designation of necessary tractor configuration for operation, ability and methods of machine connecting to the tractor with further setting and required adjustment of units and devices of machine-tractor unit and subsequent operation in accordance with maintenance documentation.
3. Field of application
BELARUS tractors provide a performance of technological processes in agricultural production and other branches similar to it, in places with unlimited air exchange.
They ensure the operation of machines consisting of machine-tractor unit as power means.
5. Directions for use and building-block approach of tractors
Use of tractors as a whole, and also the run-in and safety requirements should be carried out according to the tractors and machines operation manual.
The tractor operating manual includes the instructions and full information on all aspects of the use and safety measures during working process and also the following:
- destination and specification;
- axle and tires loads;
- characteristics, adjustments and application features of working equipment for building-block design depending on machine type in accordance with mounting method;
- precautions and fire safety measures at operation.
6. Directions for use and building-block design of vehicles consisting of machine-tractor units
Operation and building-block design of machines, choice of tractor, and also safety requirements at operation and servicing are made according to machine operating manual.
A machine operating manual includes the instructions and full information on all aspects of use and safety measures during working process and also the following:
- destination and specification;
- recommendation for tractor choice;
- correct methods of pre-starting procedure and building block approach with tractor;
- machine weight;
- hitch mechanism load;
- adjustment of drop links and limit turnbuckles of hitch mechanism;
- selection of adjustment method for hitch position;
- connecting sizes (category, type) of machine connecting devices;
- selection of operating speed;
- precautions and fire safety measures at operation.
7. Working equipment for building-block design
Tractors are equipped with following equipment for providing the standard methods of building block design:
- drawbar devices;
- 3-point hitch devices;
Equipment specification for building block design is determined by drawbar category and engine power of the tractor and also according to connecting elements similar to devices of other tractors with corresponding drawbar category and powers.
Drawbar devices provide machine building block design with connecting hinge.
Top (central) link and two lower (draft) links with hitch points, limit adjustable turnbuckles, height adjustable drop links and lift arms are the unified units of hitch devices.
Connecting elements of drawbar device and hitch device have required standard sizes, adjustment and position providing an ability of connecting and joint operation of engineering tools with standard connecting devices and position.
The tractors are equipped with unit-principle hydraulic system, providing force, position and combined operating depth control and hitch device control and working fluid supply at free hydraulic outlets. External power take-off (PTO) provides mechanical drive ability.
Use of tractor with mounted, semi-mounted, trailed and semi-trailed machines with appropriate specification, mounted by means of standard system of building-block approach / hitch and towing couplers, PTO, hydraulic outlets, pneumatic head, appliance receptacle/ doesn’t require an approval by the works for tractor application.
8. Tractors configuration
Tractor kitting-up, tires dimension-type, necessity of wheels doubling, equipment type for building-block design are determined and selected by the user independently according to type of operation, axle load and type of implement.
The works ships the completely built-up tractors, with the exception of parts and units taken away from the tractor at shipping, which indicated in the tractor supply agreement (contract).
Supply set of shipped tractor fully corresponds to the agreement (contract), concluded between manufacturing plant and the consumer.
Tractors may be completed by equipment different from main tractor kitting-up as agreed with consumer in the agreement (contract). Tractor supply usually fulfills in main kitting-up, which providing minimum required working equipment for tractor use to destination.
9. Manufacturer's warranty
RUE “MTW” guarantees the properly function of BELARUS tractor during the set lifetime if performance of agricultural and similar operations with mounted, semi-mounted, semi-trailing and trailing machine under the load, not exceeding the towing force, engine power, lifting capacity of hitch device, towing coupler load and permissible loads on axles and tires specified in tractor specification.
10. Skills of maintenance staff
Tractor can be used by persons, who passed the special training, medical examination, probation period, instruction and examination relating to labor protection, having an essential experience in building block approach of technical tools with tractor and the driving license for driving the tractor with appropriate power are admitted to use the tractor.
Operator (tractor driver) is responsible to follow the road laws, security measures and accuracy in tractor use.
Important: Official and other persons, responsible for technical state and running of the tractor, are forbidden to permit to tractor driving:
- persons without documents confirming the right for tractor driving;
- persons without knowledge of tractor operating rules;
- persons without maintenance manual for tractor and mounted technical tools.
Before starting the operation, operator must familiarize with technical documentation for machine running to be operated with tractor. Tractor responsible person should provide without fail the knowledge and strict performance of all recommendations and instructions by persons operating on this tractor, if he doesn’t operate the tractor herself.
11. Instruction for safety measures at tractor building block
Tractors are the complex technical products and relate to the category of mechanical vehicle to which apply the forces of official road laws and technical requirements for use of trackless vehicles.
Non-observance of road laws, hard cornering, speed and load conditions, producer’s guidelines and standard safety regulations may cause to the threat of people life and breakage of tractor and mounted implements, and also the environment; bring to economic losses, bring to losses of all rights for compensation guarantee. For safety building block approach, it is necessary to study attentively the operating manual for tractor and mounted machines, paying the special attention to recommendations relating to guideline for right operating (especially for selection of speed and axle loads and tractor tires) and maintenance.
It is essential to observe all recommendations and guideline contained in manual with extreme accuracy.
Ability of safety movement and enough stability of motion are estimated by Q controllability criterion, which characterized by the value of front axle load of the tractor.
Load on hitch device, drawbar device, axles, tires and tractor frame from the weight of mounted machines must not exceed the maximum accepted value permitted by producer. And the tractor front axle load must always be no less 20% of own operating weight of the tractor without ballast weights and water solution in tires in all cases of application.
In the interests of your own safety for the purpose of prevention the tractor operational breakage and injuries it is obligatory to perform the following:
1. Determine the value of operating weight of tractor, machine and technological materials.
2. Determine the axle and tractor tires loads.
Examine the tractor with machine-tractor units for compliance with:
- minimum permissible loads on front tractor wheels with machines in transport position;
- permissible loads on towing device, axles and tires of tractor;
- required lifting capacity of hitch device for machine lifting;
- total maximum axel load.
3. Determine an ability to mount the specified unit or machine.
4. Choose the minimum required weight of ballast.
5. Determine a machine loading efficiency with technological material, providing safe operation of tractor.
6. Determine a necessity in wheel doubling and filling of water solution in tires.
7. Specify the required tires pressure depending on maximum load and speed in particular operating conditions. Value of split loads on tractor front and rear axles consisting of machine-tractor units must not exceed the total permissible lifting capacity according to tractor front and rear tires at this speed and internal pressure, indicated in the table of tires lifting capacity.
Important: Hitch devices and ballast weights influence on dynamic properties, controllability and braking features of tractor especially at operation on sloping areas. In this connection it is recommended the following:
provide the 30.0…35.0% front wheels load from own weight of the tractor operating weight without machine and ballast;
reliable fixing of off-design ballast;
use front hitch device with rear hitch device;
limit motion speed;
provide full fixing of hitch device from lower links swinging in transport position.
1. It is strictly forbidden to mount engineering tools, if by results of weighing, calculation and ballasting the received loads values of axles, tires, towing device and hitch device of tractor are more resolved by manufacturer.
2. Concerning the usage of rear hitch device with front hitch device.
For the purpose of reducing the front axle and tractor front wheels overloads at first rear hitch device with machine or mounted ballast are lifted and then front hitch device with machine or mounted ballast. Lowering of hitch device is made in reverse sequence.
Provide a correctness and reliability of mounting machine connecting:
- connecting device of machine should have the corresponding sizes and form;
- connecting device should be rigid, not allowing to “run” on the tractor;
- load from machine to tractor connecting device should not exceed the accepted values;
- connecting elements of machine and tractor should be fixed and checked before starting the motion;
- it is required to equip with insurance chains (ropes) the trailers, semi-trailers or machines made on their base.
Cardan drive should have safety or overrunning clutch to avoid PTO breakage at operating with active working elements.
12. Types of machines mounted to the tractor
According to manner of building block approach (connecting) with tractors, all machines operating with machine-tractor unit are subdivided into the following types:
MOUNTED - attached to standard tractor hitch device. Machine weight in transport position is entirely received by the tractor. It may have supporting wheels for operations. At machine changing from operating position to transport position, an articulated point attaching to tractor forcedly moves to the new one.
SEMIMOUNTED - attached to standard tractor hitch device or towing device (cross bar without towing fork; cross bar with towing fork). It has supporting wheels for transport; additional – supporting wheels for operations. Machine weight in transport position is partially received by the tractor and mostly by own wheels. At machine changing from operating position to transport position, an articulated point attaching to tractor forcedly moves to new height position.
SEMITRAILED - attached to standard tractor towing device. It has supporting wheels. Machine weight in transport position is partially received by the tractor and mostly by own wheels. At machine changing from operating position to transport position, an articulated point attaching to tractor forcedly moves to new height position.
TRAILED - attached to standard tractor towing device. It has supporting wheels. Machine weight in transport position is received by its chassis. At machine changing from operating position to transport position, an articulated point attaching to tractor doesn’t change its height position.
MOUNTABLE - attached to tractor hitch device and (or) other tractor points with additional installation of non-standard units forming the machine assembly.
Mountable machines are the following: excavators, loaders, bulldozers, mountable mowing machine.
Building-block approach of mountable machines and equipment are the non-standard method of application of agricultural tractor. The weight of machine is completely received by tractor.
Before running (buying) a tractor, make sure that tractor can be mounted with available machines: according to draft force, operating speed range, takeoff power and attaching.
13. Method of machine selection to the tractor
1. Study attentively the tractor operating manual.
Define the main technical specification of tractor building-block design required for right choice of machines: drawbar category, engine power, mechanical and hydraulic power take-off, attaching sizes/type (drawbar device or hitch device; PTO tails; hydraulic outlets, rosettes, pneumatic heads), positional relationship of PTO shank butt with respect to the center of suspension axis of hitch device or connecting knuckle of drawbar device; kitting-up, range of speed and track, availability of required working equipment and maximum permissible tractor weight, permissible axles and tires loads, full weight of towed trailer.
2. Study attentively the machine operating manual.
Define its main specification required for correct tractor choice for building-block approach: draught resistance, mechanical, electric and hydraulic power take-off, attaching sizes/type (loops of towing handle/or tongue; connecting triangle; PTO shanks, hydraulic outlets, electrical plugs, pneumatic heads), positional relationship of PTO shank butt with respect to the center of suspension axle of connecting triangle or loops of towing handle/tongue; ability of changing the type of PTO shank kitting-up and the rotating direction of PTO shank, range of operating speeds, full operating weight with technological weight, availability of brakes, drive shaft (type, length, availability and type of safety clutch).
3.Consult with seller (manufacturer) of machine if necessary.
Verify the correspondence of tractor and machine specification according to the requirements of work technique (according to track, clearance and other).
4.Verify the correspondence of machine specification with tractor capabilities:
according to required power: tractive power, hydraulic power take-off, power take-off through PTO and electric energy demand;
according to drawbar category and force;
according to axles/tires loads and attaching devices of the tractor;
according to ability of connecting of machine to tractor (hitch device and drawbar device);
according to setting of required size of tractor wheels track.
5.Define for hydroficated machines:
availability of required number of hydraulic outlets;
type of drive (with constant and periodic circulation).
6. For electrified machines:
ability to install and connect electrical equipment to the cab and outside the cab.
7. Check for availability at tractor:
required working equipment for building-block approach with appropriate attaching sizes (drawbar device, pneumatic head, electric rose, PTO shank, wheel tires with required dimension-type for doubling, front or rear hitch device, reversible operating station, spacers for wheel doubling, hoses, hydraulic outlets with required number, cutoff clutches).
Buy the absent equipment additionally.
8.At buying the new machines it is necessary to indicate the required machine configuration with appropriate working equipment providing an ability to mount on the tractor:
Hydraulic fitting with connecting threads ?20?1.5;
For rear hitch devices with drive from PTO it is necessary to order a drive shaft with required length and type, providing an ability of connection to rear PTO shank.
For front hitch devices with drive from PTO it is necessary to order a drive shaft with required length and type, providing an ability of connection to front PTO shank of the tractor.
Rotation direction of machine PTO should be counterclockwise, if look at fork end of drive shaft from the direction of drive of mounted agricultural machine.
Sizes of joints of hitch upper and lower links should provide a connection of mounted and semi-mounted machines. Dimensions of hitch device are indicated in appropriate sections of operating manual.
Dimensions of towing ring in fitting of trailed and semi-trailed machines should provide connection to drawbar device to destination, which characteristics are indicated in appropriate sections of operating manual.
9. It is obligatory to check up an ability of machine connection to mating parts of hitch device or drawbar device, including correspondence with PTO location, providing reliable and safe connection by drive shaft. Make sure that tractor PTO shank has the required rotation direction, rotation frequency and type of shank to provide the drive of machine.
10.Machines with active working elements, especially it applies to front machine with drive from PTO of far-abroad countries manufacture, have a technical ability of kitting-up by reduction gear, providing PTO rotation clockwise and counterclockwise depending on your order. Therefore, at the machine purchase, indicate to the company’s representative the obligation of machine kitting-up with reduction gear which drive is provided through drive shaft with counterclockwise rotation of PTO, if look from machine drive at fork end of drive shaft.
11.After checking for availability and installation of required working equipment to the tractor, make the kitting-up and preparation of machine-tractor unit taking into account the recommendations of maintenance documentation for mounted technical tools.
12.Check for ability of hitch device to lift – lower the mounted machine with given weight. Don’t forget, the load, produced by machine with technological weight, should not exceed the recommended values of hitch device lifting capacity and permissible vertical load to drawbar device. At determination of ability to mount the machine by means of hitch device it’s necessary that lifting capacity is reduced with increase of machine centre of mass extension from bracket axis of hitch device.
13.Check the tractor motion and operation with machine and make sure of adequacy in free space between tractor and machine (construction units of machine don’t touch the tractor), including drive lines at turnings and transfer the machine in transport position.
14.Eliminate a cross-country ability (availability of sufficient clearance) and controllability of tractor with unit.
Front wheel of tractor should not lose touch with road surface at movement. Front tractor axle with machine-tractor unit should have no less than 20% of load from own tractor weight (Q 0.2).
15.Determine the total weight of machine-tractor unit, axles load, maximum permissible tires load, required ballast weight and technological weight by calculated or experimental approach.
Tractor weight on axles with machine-tractor unit should not exceed the allowed values. In any case, weight of axles should not exceed the total tires lifting capacity of rear and front wheels.
16.Check the tractor operation with machine in specific operating conditions, if possible.
14. Preparation of the tractor to building-block approach
According to tractor axle loads with machine-tractor unit, type of operation, method of building-block design, machine weight, the required wheels tread and tires pressure are set, if necessary, wheels doubling and ballasting are made, the required gear of gearbox is selected for operation and movement in transport position.
15. Selection of tractor service weight for various operating conditions
Tractor operating weight includes the constructive weight of all units and devices, weight of driver, ballast weight, weight of all additional equipment and full filling of all reservoirs by combustive-lubricating materials and coolant fluid.
BELARUS tractors are intended for realization of rated drawbar load in accordance with drawbar category of single tires in basic configuration at mounting of agricultural machines at standard operating weight on standard agricultural background (stubble) and maximum permissible slipping no more than 15.0% at engaged front driving axle.
Right choice of tractor operating weight and performance of ballasting recommendations, depending on operating conditions, guarantees an ability of safe and properly operation without critical overloads of tractor within target life.
If required, it is allowed an additional load on front axle to provide 20% load from own tractor weight at tractor operation in soil conditions with normal moisture and density with tillage machines with passive working elements: ploughs, cultivators, harrows, various composite units.
It’s forbidden to increase an operating weight of tractor for rising of drawbar load. This is reduces lifetime of tractor, results in damage of transmission units and tractor chassis.
At increased slipping it is required to reduce operating depth, coverage or operating travel speed. If technological parameters of machine can not be changed or slipping still exists, its means that machine is not designed for mounting with this model of tractor.
16. Ensuring of required front axle load, towing qualities, cross-country ability, ballasting and wheels doubling in various operating conditions of tractors
Many processes in agricultural production are made by tractor on the run by means of direct traction of machines and implements. Direct traction of engineering tools is provided by tractor on the run due to adherence of pneumatic wheel tires with road surface.
Ability of tractor to move in various soil conditions with towed load is characterized by its towing features. Tractive power at operating range speeds, rated towing force at standard operating weight and slipping are the estimated figures of tractor towing force.
Towing features and cross-country ability of the tractor in specific working conditions depend on:
trailing weight of tractor and ballast in specific configuration;
weight distribution of tractor, ballast and machine composed of machine-tractor unit over the axles;
used tires dimension-type and tires pressure;
technical state and accuracy of tractor chassis;
right and timely application of manufacturer’s recommendations and appropriate measures, increasing the towing features of tractor;
state and surface properties of path of motion;
adhesion factor of wheel tires with bearing surface.
Qualification and experience of driver is very important for providing an ability to move even in condition of one field or section of road, often variable by relief, physical and mechanical composition of the soil and because of weather condition change. Except general technical preparation of tractor and machine to operation, driving skills, the driver should have experience in selection of tractor operating mode with machine-tractor unit depending on operating conditions: if required in time to shift to the lowest or highest gear, to change the fuel delivery, to use correctly the technical devices for increasing the cross-country ability, to change efficiently the depth and coverage of machine, and also to study thoroughly all recommendations and requirements of maintenance documentation attached to tractors and machines.
It’s required to differ a bearing and profile cross-country ability at determination of possibility the tractor cross-country ability.
Bearing cross-country ability characterizes the motion ability at soils with different structure and consistency: usually in road conditions of early spring and autumn, on peat-bog soils, snow virgin lands.
Profile cross-country ability defines the tractor ability to move across the field and roads over various asperities, stubs, large stones and other high obstacles. Tractor motion ability according to profile cross-country ability is characterized by road clearance and fordable depth.
The relief is a limiting factor of tractor application, which characterized by steepness and configuration of cultivated field area and also they height above sea level. Also atmosphere pressure and external air temperature are the factors depending on height of cultivated field area. Engine power reduces by 1.0% for every 100.0 m of height above sea level and fuel consumption is increased in the same degree.
BELARUS tractors are mainly designed for flat conditions and restrictedly on areas with significant slopes gradient of height above sea level only with compliance of safety measures and recommendations.
Towing indexes and bearing cross-country ability of agricultural tractors depends not only on their characteristics and technical state, but and on type and condition of soil of cultivated field area. On soil prepared for sowing, tractive power of the tractor significantly reduces in comparison with such indexes at operation on stubble with normal dampness.
Increasing of tractor operating weight by means of factory made mounted or mountable ballast weights are usually made for additional loading of front driving axle and providing a favorable tractor operating weight distribution at operation with various agricultural machines.
Additional loading on wheels by means of water solution filling in tractor tires is used only in case of insufficient adhesion of wheels with soil in adverse conditions (on light/sandy/ water-logged soils and etc.). Tires, filled with liquid, impair traveling comfort of tractor at speed more than 20 km/h: carcass of such tires can be broken at run over obstacles.
It is strictly forbidden to fill tires more than 75 % of its volume. The excessive quantity of liquid can lead to destruction of tires and tubes of wheels. At use of water solution in front and especially, in rear tires, the tires rate, depth of the track and soil consolidation increases considerably. If the water solution is necessary to use in tires it is recommended to fill all tires to the identical level which is not exceeding 40 %: Filling of rear tires with solution more than 40 % use as the last alternative.
Always add chloride calcium in water and mix the solution before full dissolution of chloride calcium at mixing of liquid ballast solution. Never add water in chloride calcium!!!
Filling the liquid in tires of double wheels is carried out only in external tires no more than 40 % from tire volume only as a last resort.
Doubling of wheels is used for increasing the cross-country ability on water-logged and forest lands, for towing-drawbar features at operations on friable soil (on water-logged soil, on fields prepared for sowing).
Doubling of wheels in combination with minimum ballasting in standard soil conditions allows to be mounted with heavy combined units on fields with different slope.
It’s not recommended to use the tractor in complete set with doubling wheels, tires filled with water solution for operations with trailers and semi-trailers of any purpose.
Influence of wheel doubling on traction dynamics of the tractor on friable background is shown as follows. Slipping decreases on average in 1.4 times and traction capacity raises in a zone of nominal traction efforts and small speeds. At operation with low drawbar load and high speeds, the tractive power of tractor with doubling wheels is less than with single wheels because of the raised rolling resistance.
Doubling of front wheels is used only in exceptional cases, at insufficient adhesive conditions and on water-logged soils.
17. Choice of optimal internal pressure in tires depending on operating conditions and axle load of tractor.
Choice of optimal air pressure in tires of wheeled tractors and degree of its influence of towing-drawbar properties depend on type of soil and axles load of tractor. Air pressure in tires has influence on bearing spot of tractor wheel contact depending on soil conditions, and also affects its drawbar features. Recommended pressures in tires taking into account the developed loadings are indicated in shop manuals for tractors operation.
To choose correctly a pressure in tires, and also to establish necessity of ballasting, and also weight and ballast type it is possible only having defined size of axle loads of tractor by means of practical weighing of tractor with mounted machine.